世界历史

罗斯福对日宣战演讲

中文版:

副总统先生、议长先生、各位参议员和众议员:

昨天,1941年12月7日,将成为我国的国耻日。美利坚合众国遭到了日本帝国海、空军有预谋的突然袭击

在此之前,美国同日本处于和平状态,并应日本之请同该国政府及天皇谈判,指望维持太平洋区域的和平。

日本空军部队在美国的瓦胡岛。开始轰炸一小时后,日本驻美大使及其同僚居然还向美国国务卿递交正式复函,回答美国最近致日本的一封函件。这份复函虽然声言目前的外交谈判已无继续之必要,但却未有威胁的言词,也没有暗示将发动战争或采取军事行动

夏威夷岛距日本的距离说明此次袭击显然是许多天前甚至几星期前所策划的,此事将记录在案。在此期间,日本政府有意用虚伪的声明和表示继续保持和平的愿望欺骗美国。

日本昨天对夏威夷群岛的袭击,给美国海、陆军造成了严重的破坏。我遗憾地告诉你们:许许多多美国人被炸死。同时,据报告,若干艘美国船只在旧金山与火奴鲁鲁之间的公海上被水雷击中。

昨天,日本政府还发动了对马来亚的袭击。

昨夜日本部队袭击了香港。

昨夜日本部队袭击了关岛。

昨夜日本部队袭击了菲律宾群岛。

昨夜日本部队袭击了威克岛。

今晨日本人袭击了中途岛。

这样,日本就在整个太平洋区域发动了全面的突然袭击。昨天和今天的情况已说明了事实的真相。美国人民已经清楚地了解到这是关系我国存亡安危的问题。

作为海、陆军总司令,我已指令采取一切手段进行防御。

我们将永远记住对我们这次袭击的性质。

无论需要多长时间去击败这次预谋的侵略,美国人民正义在手,有力量夺取彻底的胜利。

我保证我们将完全确保我们的安全,确保我们永不再受到这种背信弃义行为的危害,我相信这话说出了国会和人民的意志。

大敌当前,我国人民、领土和利益正处于极度危险的状态,我们决不可稍有懈怠。

我们相信我们的军队、我们的人民有无比坚定的决心,因此,胜利必定属于我们。愿上帝保佑我们。

我要求国会宣布:由于日本在1941年12月7日星期日对我国无故进行卑鄙的袭击,美国同日本已经处于战争状态。

[当时的美国总统罗斯福 (Franklin Delano Roosevelt),在发生突袭后第二日,在国会发表对日宣战的著名演说——珍珠港演说 (Pearl Harbor Speech)。美国人在日本偷袭珍珠港前,对应否加入二次大战存在分歧,偷袭事件激起民愤,结果全国团结起来,支持参战。德国和意大利亦于3日后,对美 国宣战。]

英文版:

PEARL HARBOR SPEECH

Franklin Delano Roosevelt

December 8, 1941

To the Congress of the United States:

Yesterday, Dec. 7, 1941 —— a date which will live in infamy —— the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan.

The United States was at peace with that nation and, at the solicitation of Japan, was still in conversation with the government and its emperor looking toward the maintenance of peace in the Pacific.

Indeed, one hour after Japanese air squadrons had commenced bombing in Oahu, the Japanese ambassador to the United States and his colleagues delivered to the Secretary of State a formal reply to a recent American message. While this reply stated that it seemed useless to continue the existing diplomatic negotiations, it contained no threat or hint of war or armed attack.

It will be recorded that the distance of Hawaii from Japan makes it obvious that the attack was deliberately planned many days or even weeks ago. During the intervening time, the Japanese government has deliberately sought to deceive the United States by false statements and expressions of hope for continued peace.

The attack yesterday on the Hawaiian islands has caused severe damage to American naval and military forces. Very many American lives have been lost. In addition, American ships have been reported torpedoed on the high seas between San Francisco and Honolulu.

Yesterday, the Japanese government also launched an attack against Malaya.

Last night, Japanese forces attacked Hong Kong.

Last night, Japanese forces attacked Guam.

Last night, Japanese forces attacked the Philippine Islands.

Last night, the Japanese attacked Wake Island.

This morning, the Japanese attacked Midway Island.

Japan has, therefore, undertaken a surprise offensive extending throughout the Pacific area. The facts of yesterday speak for themselves. The people of the United States have already formed their opinions and well understand the implications to the very life and safety of our nation.

As commander in chief of the Army and Navy, I have directed that all measures be taken for our defense.

Always will we remember the character of the onslaught against us.

No matter how long it may take us to overcome this premeditated invasion, the American people in their righteous might will win through to absolute victory.

I believe I interpret the will of the Congress and of the people when I assert that we will not only defend ourselves to the uttermost, but will make very certain that this form of treachery shall never endanger us again.

Hostilities exist. There is no blinking at the fact that that our people, our territory and our interests are in grave danger.

With confidence in our armed forces —— with the unbounding determination of our people —— we will gain the inevitable triumph —— so help us God.

I ask that the Congress declare that since the unprovoked and dastardly attack by Japan on Sunday, Dec. 7, a state of war has existed between the United States and the Japanese empire.

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